Labor Relations Update
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Joshua Fox

Associate

Joshua S. Fox is an associate in the Labor & Employment Law Department and a member of the Sports, Labor-Management Relations, Class and Collective Actions and Wage and Hour Groups.

As a member of the Sports Law Group, Josh has represented several Major League Baseball Clubs in all aspects of the salary arbitration process, including the Kansas City Royals, San Francisco Giants, Tampa Bay Rays and Toronto Blue Jays. In particular, Josh assisted with the successful representation of the Toronto Blue Jays in their case against All-Star Josh Donaldson, which was the largest club victory in salary arbitration in recent years. Josh also represents Major League Baseball and its clubs in ongoing litigation brought by current and former minor league players who allege minimum wage and overtime violations, as well as similar claims brought on behalf of scouts. Josh participated on the team that successfully defended Major League Baseball in a wage-and-hour lawsuit brought by a former volunteer for the 2013 All-Star FanFest, who alleged minimum wage violations under federal and state law. The lawsuit was dismissed by the federal district court, and was affirmed by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

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Access Denied: Supreme Court Finds California Regulation Permitting Union Access to Employer Property Constitutes An Unconstitutional Taking

In a 6–3 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court held on June 23, 2021 that a California regulation granting labor organizers the “right to take access” to agricultural employers’ private property to solicit union support violated the Takings Clause of the U.S. Constitution. See Cedar Point Nursery et al. v. Hassid et al., USSC Case No. … Continue Reading

Hands Off My Ballot: NLRB Finds that Solicitation of Mail-Ballots is Objectionable Conduct That May Warrant Setting Aside an Election

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, mail-ballot elections—rather than manual, in-person elections, have been mandatory for most NLRB representation elections. The NLRB’s recent ruling, on June 9, 2021, in Professional Transportation Inc., 370 NLRB 132 (2021), provided important guidance regarding when solicitation in the context of such elections constitutes objectionable conduct, such that it … Continue Reading

BREAKING: President Biden Nominates Union-Side Attorney Gwynne Wilcox to Fill NLRB Seat

On Wednesday, May 26, 2021, President Biden nominated Gwynne Wilcox to fill the last remaining vacancy on the National Labor Relations Board (“Board”).  If confirmed by the Senate, Wilcox would be the second Democrat on the Board, joining Board Chair Lauren McFerran (who had been a member of the Board since 2014, and was appointed … Continue Reading

NLRB Majority: Employer May Continue “No Recording” Rule, Even After Unlawfully Applying it to Single Employee

In AT&T Mobility LLC , 370 NLRB No. 121 (2021), the NLRB majority (Members Ring and Emanuel) held that the Employer could lawfully maintain a workplace policy prohibiting its workers from recording conversations with their co-workers, managers or third-parties, even though its application in one particular circumstance was found unlawful.  Notwithstanding the fact that the … Continue Reading

NLRB: Employer’s “Hard-Bargaining” Proposals—By Themselves—Did Not Violate Duty to Bargain in Good Faith

In Universal Health Services, Inc., 370 N.L.R.B. No. 118 (April 30, 2021), the Board dismissed a complaint alleging that an employer’s bargaining proposals seeking significant concessions violated the duty to bargain in good faith.  Notably, the Board found that even when faced with extreme proposals, a union must still “test” the employer’s willingness to make … Continue Reading

NLRB Declines to Address Validity of Acting GC’s Appointment, Instead Deferring the Issue to the Courts

On April 30, 2021, in National Association of Broadcast Employees & Technicians, 370 NLRB No. 114 (2021), the Board declined to opine on the validity of President Biden’s termination of former General Counsel Peter Robb and subsequent replacement with Acting General Counsel Peter Sung Ohr.  It now sets the stage for a federal court of … Continue Reading

NLRB Upholds Contract-Bar Doctrine in Current Form

On April 21, 2021, the National Labor Relations Board (the “Board”) declined to eliminate or modify its long-standing contract-bar doctrine, which purports to provide stability in the relationship among the employer, a collective bargaining representative, and its employee-members.  The Board previously invited comment on the continued application of the contract-bar doctrine in July 2020. The … Continue Reading

New York State Bill Mandating COVID-19 Safety Standards in the Workplace Provides Carve-out for Unionized Employers

As discussed in greater detail here, Governor Andrew Cuomo is poised to sign into law S.1034B/A.2681B, also referred to as the New York Health and Essential Rights Act, or the “Hero Act.” The Hero Act has two main components.  First, the state Department of Labor, in consultation with the state Department of Health, shall create … Continue Reading

Employer’s Policies On Blogging, Solicitation and E-Mail Signature Blocks Lawful, NLRB Rules (For Now, Anyway)

Over the past few years, the National Labor Relations Board has frequently weighed in on employer’s workplace and employee handbook policies, examining whether an employer’s policy impacts employees’ rights under Section 7 of the National Labor Relations Act.  Employers received a needed dose of clarity in Boeing Co., 365 NLRB No. 154 (2017), where the … Continue Reading

NLRB General Counsel Promises “Vigorous” Enforcement of Employees’ Rights to Engage in Workplace Advocacy Related to Social Issues and Health and Safety Concerns

On March 31, 2021, the NLRB’s Acting General Counsel Peter Ohr issued a Memorandum entitled “Effectuation of the National Labor Relations Act through Vigorous Enforcement of Mutual Aid or Protection and Inherently Concerted Doctrines” to all Regional Directors.  While the Memorandum does not change NLRB precedent in any respect, it is a preview of the … Continue Reading

Unsigned and Torn Up: NLRB Weighs In On Issues Arising During Mail-Ballot Elections

Though the National Labor Relations Board has established a pathway for holding in-person union elections, mail-ballot elections continue to be the norm in many Regions across the country.  Of course, the more mail-ballot elections that occur, the more unique issues arise.  In XPO Logistics Freight, Inc., 370 NLRB No. 99 (2021), the Board weighed in … Continue Reading

Tesla and Musk Get a Shock from the NLRB – Tesla CEO Ordered to Delete Union Tweet and Eliminate Overly Broad Confidentiality Policy

In its March 25 decision, the NLRB unanimously held that:  (1) Tesla violated the National Labor Relations Act (“NLRA”) after prohibiting employees from talking to the media; (2) Tesla did not violate the Act by calling employees into a meeting to discuss their potential unionization; and (3) Tesla must order CEO Elon Musk to delete his … Continue Reading

Requiring Employees to Maintain the Confidentiality of Arbitration Proceedings Held to be Lawful Under the NLRA…For Now

In a recent decision by the NLRB, the Board upheld the lawfulness, in part, of an arbitration agreement that required employees to maintain the confidentiality of the arbitration proceedings, including the discovery process and the hearing. Dish Network, LLC, 370 NLRB No. 97 (March 18, 2021). However, Chairman McFerran’s considerable dissent likely signals that the … Continue Reading

Once Again, the House Passes “Protect the Right to Organize Act,” Sending Bill to Senate

As we recently foreshadowed, given the slim Democratic margins in the House and Senate, and a Democratic President, there is the potential for the most significant amendments to the National Labor Relations Act (“NLRA” or “Act”) in its eighty-six (86) year history.  On Tuesday night, March 9, 2021, the U.S. House of Representatives took the … Continue Reading

NLRB: Initial Burden of Union Animus Met Largely by Timing of Employer’s Discharge of Employee

It is an unfair labor practice for an employer to retaliate against (1) union supporters pursuant to Section 8(a)(3) of the National Labor Relations Act (the “Act”), and (2) employees for filing a complaint with the National Labor Relations Board, testifying in a Board proceeding, or otherwise utilizing the Board’s processes, under Section 8(a)(4).  Both … Continue Reading

BREAKING: President Biden Nominates Former Deputy General Counsel Jennifer Abruzzo for NLRB General Counsel

President Biden nominated Jennifer Abruzzo, Special Counsel for Strategic Initiatives for the Communications Workers of America, to be General Counsel of the National Labor Relations Board. Abruzzo was a Board veteran with more than two decades at the agency before becoming the union’s point person on NLRB issues. She was NLRB Deputy General Counsel and … Continue Reading

No “Finite Fellows” in the Bargaining Unit – the Board Weighs in on Temporary Workers

When it comes to fellowship—and collective bargaining—it looks like “fellows” aren’t treated the same as their permanent status co-workers.  In Phoenix News Times, LLC and The Newsguild–CWA, 370 NLRB No. 84 (Feb. 10, 2021), the National Labor Relations Board (the “Board” or “NLRB”) found that workers employed at a Phoenix newspaper in a fellowship program … Continue Reading

NLRB Acting General Counsel Strikes Again, Directs Agency to Withdraw Complaints Attacking Neutrality Agreements

As we recently reported, National Labor Relations Board Acting General Counsel Peter Sung Ohr recently gave us a peek behind the curtain at his prosecutorial priorities as General Counsel when he rolled back a number of General Counsel Memoranda issued by his predecessor, Peter Robb.  Consistent with that roll back, Ohr recently directed the agency … Continue Reading

NLRB Acting General Counsel Rolls Back Guidance from Prior Administration

On February 1, National Labor Relations Board (“NLRB”) Acting General Counsel Peter Sung Ohr rescinded a slew of General Counsel Memos issued by his predecessor, Peter Robb. On February 2, Ohr continued his actions by rolling back two Operations Management memos that were also issued during Robb’s term. Ohr’s actions come one week after he … Continue Reading

NLRB Sees First Challenge to the Authority of Acting NLRB General Counsel’s to Process Unfair Labor Practice Cases after Recent Shakeup

In the first known of its kind objection to an ongoing NLRB proceeding, an employer has urged the NLRB to dismiss an unfair labor charge against it, arguing that the agency is unable to prosecute the matter, in light of President Biden’s unprecedented firing of then-General Counsel Peter Robb and Deputy GC Alice Stock, and … Continue Reading

After Unprecedented Firings of General Counsel and Deputy General Counsel, President Biden Names Peter Sung Ohr Acting General Counsel of the NLRB

President Biden named Peter Sung Ohr as Acting General Counsel of the National Labor Relations Board today. Ohr is a career employee of the NLRB, having served as a Field Attorney, Deputy Assistant General Counsel in the NLRB’s Division of Operations-Management, and as Regional Director of the Board’s Chicago Regional Office. Biden’s action comes after … Continue Reading

BREAKING: President Biden Continues NLRB Shake-Up By Firing Acting NLRB GC

One day after a standoff between President Biden and NLRB General Counsel Peter Robb resulted in his unprecedented termination, President Biden fired the NLRB’s second-ranked attorney, NLRB Deputy General Counsel Alice Stock, according to a Bloomberg report.  Stock would have served as Acting NLRB General Counsel after Robb’s termination on January 20th.  As of this … Continue Reading

Breaking: On First Day in Office, President Biden Shakes Up NLRB By Firing GC and Appointing New Chair

*** UPDATE:  On his first day in office, President Biden fired NLRB General Counsel Peter Robb, according to a report by Bloomberg News. This marks the first time in the history of the NLRB that a President has terminated the agency’s General Counsel before the expiration of their term. As we reported earlier below, President … Continue Reading

NLRB Finds Employer Acted Lawfully by Paying Statutory Minimum Christmas Bonus, Rejecting Unilateral Change and CBA Modification Claims

On January 14, 2021, the NLRB issued a decision in Asociacion de Empleados del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, 370 NLRB No. 71. The decision involved the issue of whether a term of employment contained in a collective bargaining agreement continues after the expiration of the contract. This issue has been vexing for employers … Continue Reading
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